The Black Student Union invited four black community leaders including Dr. Carlton Goodlett, “Sun Reporter” newspaper editor; Rev Cecil Williams, pastor of Glide Memorial Church; Ron Dellums, Berkeley City Councilman; and Willie L. Brown, Jr. California State Assemblyman to a rally that became known as “Bloody Tuesday.” This image was used as the cover image for the “San Francisco Express Times” 1: 46 (December 4, 1968): 1.
Tactical Squad officer holds down an unidentified protester with bloody face using club. Image used in “San Francisco Express Times” 1: 47 (December 11, 1968): 4 and on the cover of “Rolling Stone 30 (April 5, 1969) with the caption “American Revolution 1969.”
San Francisco State College Acting-President S. I. Hayakawa holding press conference after violent demonstrations, wears a lei of flowers “academic friends on campus,” and surrounded with ten bouquets of flowers from “fans in Yuba City.” A student reporter (left) wears Phi Gamma Kappa jacket. Image used as cover of San Francisco Express Times (December 11, 1968).
At the end of “Bloody Tuesday,” S. I. Hayakawa holds press conference after violence on campus his first day as Acting President, wearing a flower lei, from “academic friends on campus,” and surrounded by ten bouquets of flowers from “fans in Yuba City.” Student reporter (left) wears Phi Gamma Kappa jacket. Image used as cover of “San Francisco Express Times” 1: 47 (December 11, 1968).
The Tactical Squad marches onto campus as people watch from the rooftops and window. San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto (1916-1998) authorized the formation of a tactical squad in late-1967 to quell violence from student protests and youth disruption from the emerging drug culture in the Haight-Ashbury after the “Summer of Love.”
Photograph depicts Carlton Goodlett (right) with BSU members Bridges Randall (left with microphone) and Jack Alexis (behind Goodlett) as they address the crowd. Dr. Carlton B. Goodlett, Vice President of the San Francisco Council of Churches – was charged with unlawful assembly, failure to disburse, disturbing the peace, trespassing, and inciting to riot.
Former SFSC History professor Dr. Juan Martinez, son of a migrant worker, experience the poverty of the Great Depression fought hard for his education; he attended college on the G.I. Bill, earning a Ph.D. in history at University of California, Berkeley by 1956. Martinez started at San Francisco State College in fall of 1966 and immediately clashed with History chair Ray Kelch over teaching course in Mexican-American history. At the end of the spring semester of 1967, Martinez was notified that his job would not be renewed for the next academic year. Martinez filed a grievance and President John Summerskill appointed him to be head of the College Commitment Program through the Social Science department. Confounded by institutional obstacles, Martinez proposed an alliance of ethnic student organizations that would work together around common goals of achieving educational equity at San Francisco State College.
George Woo, a Chinatown community youth leader, wears a "Yellow Peril" pin addresses the crowd with Dr. Juan Martinez standing behind him. Woo went on to teach in Asian American Studies and serve as its chair.
BSU member Bridges Randall with bullhorn at Speakers Platform engages the crowd regarding the BSU and TWLF demands. Dr. Carlton Goodlett (looking down) stands behind the bullhorn. Jack Alexis and Cecil Williams stand behind Goodlett.
Berkeley City Council member Ron Dellums speaking to the crowd. Later, Dellums asserted that Acting-president S. I. Hayakawa was a puppet. Image used as cover of “San Francisco Express Times” 1: 47 (December 11, 1968): 4.
Unidentified TWLF member wearing Mexican-American Student Confederation, El Renacemiento (MASC) pin in lapel speaks as Dr. Juan Martinez stands by. Martinez was the faculty advisor for MASC, which was established in January of 1968. Image used as cover of “San Francisco Express Times” 1: 47 (December 11, 1968): 4.
As Dr. Carlton Goodlett speaks to crowds from the Speakers Platform, black community leaders stand behind him with arms locked in sign of unity. Pictured (left to right): Richard A. Bancroft, San Francisco attorney and member of the BART Board of Directors, Sylvester Brown, aged 29, a leader from Young Men for Action, a Hunter’s Point youth group, who a week earlier led a cleanup effort in Hunters Point before a community festival, Cecil Williams, pastor at Glide Memorial Church, and Donald McCullum, Oakland attorney. Brown was charged with assaulting a police officer, failing to disburse, resisting arrest, and violation of Mulford Act. San Francisco’s first African American supervisor Terry A. Francois and a leader in the Urban League Thomas Gwynn also participated in the march.
Students, community members, and protestors conclude their rally with a march around the campus. This photograph depicts the crowd moving across campus Quad away from the Speakers Platform with the College Library to the left.
Two days after “Bloody Tuesday,” community and religious leaders joined over 2,000 students in a community support day to encourage nonviolence. The march commenced from Ecumenical House with Rev. Jerry Pedersen, Dr. Carlton B. Goodlett, and others, who crossed 19th Avenue, entered the campus, and moved towards the Speaker’s Platform. Photograph depicts Ecumenical House director Rev. Gerry Pedersen being restrained at the neck by a police officer wielding a club on December 5, 1968. Pedersen has just protested the police clubbing a white student and officer is steering him to the left. A black bearded student just beyond has been knocked to the ground. Pedersen had been appealing to the police officer not to hit the student unnecessarily. In upper right corner police block nurse from getting closer to scuffle and Dr. Richard H. Fine (with mustache, beard, and dark glasses) with San Francisco State Strike Medical Committee for Human Rights wait to advance and provide aid. Police confronted the crowd, ordering protestors to leave the campus Quad. Community leaders stated they would not leave until the police let them do so in peace. Community leaders and student were trying to comply when the police encircled them and a skirmish erupted. Contributions to student legal defense were sent to Margaret Leahy care of Ecumenical House. In the violence, Drs. Richard Fine and Lawrence Rose with the Medical Committee for Human Rights were beaten despite being clearly identified. Rev. Jerry Pedersen, a campus chaplain and director of Ecumenical House – was charged with failure to disburse, resisting arrest, and violation of Mulford Act.
Three TWLF members, including Robert “Bob” G. Ilumin, speak to the crowd as Dr. Juan Martinez stands by. Among the students arrested, was Al Wong (a.k.a. Halford Lum), aged 24, a student organizer in the Intercollegiate Chinese for Social Action – he was arrested on an existing warrant.
Administrator Dr. Elmer Cooper (left), Tony Miranda (center), and Bridges Randall (right) lead protest march carrying bullhorns. In February of 1968, Cooper (aged 28) was hired to be San Francisco State College activities counselor, and five months later was promoted to Associate Dean of Students specifically focused on student activities. Cooper was affiliated with the Bay Area Urban League. Miranda and Randall were leaders in the Third World Liberation Front. The following week, on December 11, 1968. Miranda and Randall (along with Jack Alexis) were chased down and arrested in front of AFT picket lines on existing warrants.
Photograph of various supporters of the student-led Strike at San Francisco State College with placards including, Community Strike Support Coalition, Pacific Heights ad hoc committee Supporting SF State Strike, SFSC AFT Local 1352, SJSC AFT Local 1362; Japanese-Americans Concerned – Supporting Striking Students.
SFSC AFT (Local 1352) picket along Holloway Avenue (Parkmerced is in the background) with signs reading “Education not regulation,” and “Autonomy.” Gary Hawkins was the director of Forensics and chair of the Speech and Communications Studies as well as the president of San Francisco State chapter of the American Federation of Teachers (Local 1352) during the Strike.
SFSU AFT (Local 1352) picket along Holloway Avenue (Parkmerced is in the background) with signs reading “Education not regulation,” and “Autonomy.” Gary Hawkins was the director of Forensics and chair of the Speech and Communications Studies as well as the president of San Francisco State chapter of the American Federation of Teachers (Local 1352) during the Strike.
AFT representative Gary Hawkins in sweater carries placard that reads “Don’t come to work, support strike” with two police officers blocking him. Gary Hawkins was the director of Forensics and chair of the Speech and Communications Studies as well as the president of San Francisco State chapter of the American Federation of Teachers (Local 1352) during the Strike.